Paolo Scirpa italiano

A brief biography

Paolo Scirpa (Syracuse, Sicily, 1934) lives in Milan. His work has always taken the dimension of an inner quest, outside any forms of restrictive categorization.
From the 1970s, he moved from a two-dimensional iconography to the modularity of an objective space, transformed by light and mirrors into a poly-objective format. His work moved towards a dimension in which light and space become the immaterial and spectacular principal themes. The artist evidently wishes to depict not so much real light, as "ideal" light, namely the idea of infinity, and so he therefore uses the means available to him, fluorescent tubes and mirrors.
This led to the invention of his Ludoscopes, three-dimensional works that present the perception of a fictitious depth, towards luminous hyperspaces in which the boundary between reality and illusion no longer exists. Bruno Munari also commented on the playful and ironic dimension of these works. Scirpa's virtual spaces attracted attention from scholars of art and science.
Over the course of the years, he has also created large works highlighting the negative aspects of consumerist society, as well as installations, and paintings which could be described as two-dimensional depictions of his Ludoscopes.
In the 1980s, he began working on design themes, inserting his bottomless wells into various episodes of architecture and other prestigious locations.

He has exhibited at the Salon Grands et Jeunes d’aujourd’hui in Paris, at the 9th and 13th Quadriennial Exhibitions in Rome, at Palazzo dei Diamanti (Ferrara), and more recently at ZKM Zentrum für Kunst und Medientechnologie (Karlsruhe), at Neue Galerie (Graz), at MART Museo d’Arte Moderna e Contemporanea di Trento e Rovereto, at La Galleria Nazionale (Rome), at MACRO Museo d’Arte Contemporanea and  at Farnesina (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome), at Museum Ritter (Waldenbuch), at MACBA (Buenos Aires), at MACLA (La Plata), at GR Gallery (New York), at MUO (Zagabria), at Instituto Tomie Ohtake (San Paolo del Brasile), at Centro Cultural Oscar Niemeyer (Brasilia), at Fondazione Carlos Cruz Diez (Panama) and at MACA Museo Arte contemporanea (Acri, CS).

His works are present in many museums and collections including Museo del Novecento (Milan), Gallerie d'Italia (Milan), Civiche Raccolte Stampe Achille Bertarelli (Castello Sforzesco, Milan), Biblioteca dell’Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera (Milan), MAPP Museo d’Arte Paolo Pini (Milan), MAGA Museo Arte Gallarate (Milan), VAF-Stiftung (MART Trento/Rovereto), La Galleria Nazionale and Farnesina (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome), Museo Civico d'Arte Contemporanea (Gibellina), Museum (Bagheria), Fabbriche Chiaramontane (Agrigento), Museum Ritter (Waldenbuch) and Musée des Beaux Arts (Caen).


He has made works for public and private spaces and churches.

Scirpa´s works have been included in scenographies and shows of various kinds, both televised and theatrical: among other things, in 2015, the INDA National Institute of Ancient Drama of Syracuse entrusts him with the realization of the Manifesto of the 51st Cycle of Classical Shows and, in 2016, the Milano Musica Festival chooses its Ludoscopes to interpret the Music of the composer Gérard Grisey.


Scirpa has taught at the Brera Fine Arts Academy.




Biographical notes

edited by Margherita Scirpa

Paolo Scirpa was born in Syracuse, Sicily, on 5 July 1934. From his adolescence he studied painting at the local Art School, and he continued his art studies in Palermo and Catania. During the 1960s he spent some time in a number of European cities, developing his knowledge of historic avant-garde currents. For a long period, he studied at the Kunstlerhaus printing workshops in Salzburg, and at the Internationale SommerAkademie für Bildende Kunst, with cultural guidance from Oskar Kokoschka. It was at the latter institution that he met John Friedlaender, in whose studio he would later work in Paris.
In 1965 he took part in the 9th edition of the National Quadrennial art show in Rome.
During the earliest years of his career, he adopted a lyrical form of Expressionism, already demonstrating his desire for attaining a constructive synthesis. His works, vibrant with light and colour, were hallmarked by powerful motifs, and they reflect the naturalistic roots of the land of his origins. He created his first Sole (Suns), symbolizing energy in the form of a message of love, in which structures of light and colour move towards an idealistic centrality within circular and square surfaces. Scirpa, “a witness of his age” (G. Mandel, 1969), was committed to providing a human and artistic contribution to the contemporary world.
In 1968 he moved to Milan, later working with Luciano Fabro at the Brera Academy of Fine Arts, where for years he would be a professor of Painting. He had many solo shows: in 1969 in Milan, at Galleria Agrifoglio, with a presentation by Vittorio Fagone, who highlighted the “lively aspiration towards an active image” emerging from his works; in 1970 at Galerie De 3 Hendricken in Amsterdam, in 1974 at Galleria Fumagalli in Bergamo, and at the Achleitner Gallery in Salzburg.
In that period, his interests ranged from Pierre Restany's work in the area of Nouveau Réalisme, to Pop Art.
In 1972 he presented Megalopoli consumistica (Consumerist megalopolis, Galleria San Fedele in Milan, in the exhibition The Object Possessed), an unusual work based on the assembly of a large number of wrappers and disposable containers, a dramatic social denouncement of consumerism and the crisis of human values that had a radical effect on the spectator’s imagination. Gillo Dorfles later published the image in his book L’intervallo perduto (The lost interval).
In this period, in his Habitats, he experimented with mirror-steel surfaces, and he used a variety of materials in his plastic constructions with interchangeable modularity, “a sort of iconography of urban planning and architecture” (P. Fiori, 1972),“optical structures that he resolved in objective terms” (R. Sanesi, 1975).
It was “by means of a unitary poetic foundation” that he was able to incorporate “all the themes and the fundamental questions hallmarking the liveliest traits of the 1960s and 70s art scene into his work” (F. Poli, 1995).
Scirpa took inspiration from Boccioni's Technical Manifesto of Futurist Sculpture, in which he theorized the possibility of using electric light in works of art. Further influences came from Fontana's Spatialism. He also established links to experimental Optical Art work, based on fundamental sculptural values and on aspects of perception. His research moved towards a dimension in which colour was no longer painted, and volumes were no longer sculpted: a dimension in which the primary elements of light and space became the fundamental values, at once immaterial and spectacular.
In 1972, Scirpa began constructing his Ludoscopes, defined, by Carlo Belloli in a detailed critical essay dating to 1979, as sculptures which, by means of a system of mirrors and neon lights, and the combination of minimalist components, create the perception of illusory depth. These works, of remarkable visual impact, force the spectator to look into empty space. Light, “a metaphor of infinite self-mirroring images,” is no longer a depicted element, but it forms the work itself; his neon light-emitting forms are “true light-hyperspaces,” in which “the separation between reality and illusion is abolished,” as Corrado Maltese noted in 1976.
In those years, Scirpa met exponents of the Concrete art movement (MAC), including Bruno Munari, who wrote thus of his Ludoscopes: “Up until now, no-one has been to the end of these chasms to describe what can be seen there” (1980), also highlighting their playful character. He came into contact with the Optical and Kinetic Art groups working in Milan and Paris. His virtual spaces attracted the interest of cybernetic specialist Silvio Ceccato, who spoke of “a third dimension created with effects of attentional immobility” (1978). The artist was thus able to reflect on the mechanisms of human thought. His light-space projects were published by scholars working on relationships between art and science, such as Roberto Vacca, in an essay ‘Designing positive environmental impact’ in the magazine VIA, Giorgio Prodi, in the essays ‘The mechanisms of the mind’ published in Sole 24 ore, and Carmelo Strano in ‘Art Reflections and Techno Art’ in the magazine Arca.
From 1977 to 1991, his works were presented annually in the kinetic section of the Salon Grands et Jeunes d’aujourd’hui at Grand Palais des Champs-Elysées, Paris.
In the 1980s, he developed his earliest projects in the area in which he is still working today. Using photomontage techniques, Scirpa simulates the insertion of monumental Ludoscopes, light wells and the respective perspective views into landscapes, buildings, monuments, cities, archaeological sites, and even works of art. “The normal image is forcibly shifted, causing a change in perception” (L. Caramel, 1981), or “a dramatization of the monument” (R. Barletta, 1985), generating various mental states in the spectator.
In 1982, the Symposium de Sculpture in the city of Caen (France) chose the project for one of his Ludoscopes, which was permanently installed at the Musée des Beaux-Arts. In 1983, on occasion of the year dedicated to Leonardo da Vinci, he reviewed his own art in the light of Leonardo’s work, discovering that the Codex Atlanticus contains certain principles regarding the reflection of light that also appear in his Ludoscopes. Of course, the media used are different – transparent mirrors and neon light – but nonetheless, this comparison confirmed the continuity between past and present, and the relationship between science and art.
In 1984, he presented two solo shows, in Nishinomiya Koshienguchi and Iida Nagano, Japan. In 1985, Scirpa, defined by Pierre Restany as the “calligrapher of electric light”, was in Rome for the exhibition at Palazzo Venezia, Contemporary artists amidst science and technology, directed by Corrado Maltese and promoted by the AST (Art-Science-Technology) association.
On recommendation by Bruno Munari, he took part in The invented object, Seibu Art Forum Italian Fair, in Tokyo Ikebukuro, Osaka, and later in Milan.
In 1986, on occasion of the show Art – Science – Technology at the International Biennial exhibition in Venice, he created a project for inserting one of his Ludoscopes into the wild, rocky opening of the cave known as “Archimedes’ tomb” in Syracuse. In this case, the Ludoscope becomes “the sights for a target that is inserted into the rock, creating a heart, a lung, a transcendental vision of objective reality” (P. Restany, 1986).
In those years, he had many solo shows: for example, at Galleria Arte Struktura and Galleria Vismara Arte in Milan, and at Palazzo dei Diamanti in Ferrara. In 1987 he presented an anthological exhibition at Galleria Civica d’Arte Moderna in Gallarate with an audio-visual commentary by Rossana Bossaglia, who said that “the intellectual experimenter, the artist of ‘programmed’ training, proclaims his role as prophet of mystery.” In 1990, on occasion of the 125th anniversary of the foundation of Milan Technical University, Bossaglia invited him to present his work to C.N.R., the Italian research council, as a contribution to a symposium supported by UNESCO and dedicated to New technology and art: the scientific origins of aesthetics. In addition, he appeared in reviews of Pataphysics, the science of imaginary solutions, with a number of works whose critical interpretation lies in the area of humour, the absurd and the ironic.
In 1993, at the Foundation of Culture in Osaka, Scirpa took part in the International Triennial Competition of Painting. In 1995, at Palazzo Sanguinetti in Bologna, he exhibited in the exhibition Urban utopias – the virtual city, and at the trade fair Futur Show, in the section Art and Artificial Life. In the same year, he presented his work at another show on occasion of the conference titled Art+Science – changes in contemporary art induced by new technology, held at the Brera Fine Arts Academy in Milan.
Over this period, “the Ludoscopes series ventured into creations of luminous visual-spatial interference, with circular, square and radial structures, and prismatic combinations of meta-stable depth” (G. Di Genova, 2003), to the point at which they became illusory modes of connection, in which the semi-concealed sculptural space became physically accessible, while in other cubic structures, the multi-spatial character was provided by infinite perspectives to the disappearing point, visible on every side, intersecting on the diagonals of the cube.
In 1996, Scirpa created a mosaic based on the electronically processed image of the Annunciation by Antonello da Messina (Palazzo Bellomo Museum, Syracuse.) “Scirpa has decided […] to amplify that image, making his own contribution a sort of divine breath, or absolute light, in the scene” (F. Gualdoni, 2003).
In the same year he had another solo show at Galleria San Fedele, presented by Marina De Stasio, who commented, “an exhibition by Scirpa is a dynamic and festive celebration in which it is a pleasure to be involved.”
In 1998, he took part in a show at the Museum-Observatory of Contemporary Art in Bagheria, Sicily.
Another solo show in 1999 was titled The plasticity of light, held at Galleria Arte Struktura in Milan, directed by Andrea B. Del Guercio, with photographic interpretations by Giovanni Ricci. Del Guercio stated, “once again, by means of incident light, Scirpa experimentally produces an enveloping sculptural-visual mass, in which, within the cubic structure, a path is traced, resembling an orderly itinerary or a labyrinth, according to the viewpoint.” Years later, from that initial idea built in wood, the artist would create a sculpture in iron.
Scirpa also exhibited in many other group shows and reviews. These included: the Taegu-Milan Arts Exhibition in 1999 in Taegu, Korea; the 13th Quadrennial National Art Show in Rome, 2000, where, as part of Projections 2000 – The space of the visual arts in multimedia society, he exhibited ‘Intercommunicating paths,’ a Ludoscope comprising four accessible light wells, in which spectators had the sensation of floating in light; the Museum of Modern Art, Seoul (Korea), 1999, in a show titled ‘Brera in Korea’; the Torre Colombera Foundation, at Gorla Maggiore, near Varese, 2001, in a show named Mother Material 3 – Technological, directed by Claudio Cerritelli and Massimo Bignardi; the Brera Fine Arts Academy in Milan, Horizontal vs. Vertical’ and the G. Bargellini Museum, Pieve di Cento (near Bologna), in the exhibition ‘1930s generation’ directed by Giorgio Di Genova.
In 2002 he completed the project for a mobile installation, an ‘archetypal work’ with neon lights featuring the Greek Theatre in Syracuse at 1/10 scale. In 2004 he held solo shows at Galleria Vismara Arte, Milan, titled Painting and the kinetic object, in which “the canvases evoked the overlapping light of moving neon bulbs, colours expanding like flashes of luminescence,” and at the Brera Fine Arts Academy Library, in a show titled ‘Urban utopias’, edited by Claudio Cerritelli.
In 2004, the artist rediscovered the significance of his roots and his relationship with his city of birth, by designing the setting, in Syracuse, for two of his sculptures in mirror-finish steel. He had created the preparatory sketches for these works as early as 1987. One, Lo specchio ustorio (‘The burning glass) is “a work with moving metal components, of dazzling brightness that primarily generates light” (M. Meneguzzo, 2006). It is dedicated to Archimedes. The other, Luce stellare (Starlight), is dedicated to Saint Lucy, in Piazza Santa Lucia. In the same year he created La galera del benessere (The prison of wellness) in which the “entire world-universe is evoked by a terrestrial and aquatic globe covered […] by labels, wrappers and packaging […] and the sense of impediment is underlined by the presence of a prison cage” (G. Seveso, 2004).
In 2006, he was invited to exhibit in the show Sicily! directed by Marco Meneguzzo. In 2007, Alberto Veca, presenting a retrospective show dedicated to Scirpa at Studio d’Arte Valmore in Vicenza, said, “Infinite illusory space, and the actual, tangible perception of volumes: these are the two apparently contrasting themes on which Paolo Scirpa has been working for years.” In 2007 and in the following years, Studio Valmore invited him to exhibit at MIArt in Milan and at Art Verona, in Verona. At the venue MAPP in Milan, for the event ‘A night at the museum,’ he exhibited the Large consumerist hoarding, an installation consisting of a large wall with light emerging from the spaces between one part and another. This would be purchased by VAF Stiftung/MART in Trento-Rovereto, and in 2008/09 it would be exhibited at ZKM in Karlsruhe (Germany), at the exhibition YOU_ser: Das Jahrhundert des Konsumenten. In the same period, he exhibited in the show Journey in Italy at the Landesmuseum Joanneum, Graz (Austria). In 2009, he was in Berlin for his show at the Museum Ritter, at the Baden-Württemberg representative offices, and in Cordoba, Argentina, for the show Futurist echoes at the Jenero Perez Museum and then at Collectors Choice II at ZKM, Karlsruhe and in Waldenbuch, Museum Ritter, Hommage an das Quadrat - Werke aus der Sammlung Marli Hoppe-Ritter 1915 bis 2009.
Over the last few years, Scirpa has created two sculptures in white Carrara marble and white-enamelled wood, geometrical and innovative works that evoke the Greek Theatre in Syracuse. The stepped seating of the arena is doubled in these pieces, becoming circular, and extending outwards as well as inwards.
From 2010, Paolo Scirpa has been included in the Light Art in Italy publications edited by Gisella Gellini and Francesco Murano. In the same year he took part in the exhibition curated by Marco Meneguzzo titled Astrazione siciliana (Sicilian Abstraction) at Fabbriche Chiaramontane in Agrigento; in Lìmen Arte 2010 curated by Giorgio Di Genova in Vibo Valentia, and in the show Lucio Fontana - Spazio e luce oltre il taglio (Lucio Fontana – Space and light beyond the cut) at the Museo Archeologico in Bologna.
In 2011, Paolo Scirpa’s large Grande Tabellone consumistico bifrontale, 1992/2002, was installed at MART in Rovereto, on occasion of the exhibition Percorsi riscoperti dell’arte italiana nella VAF – Stiftung, 1947-2010 (Rediscovered oeuvres of Italian art in the VAF – Stiftung, 1947-2010). In the same year he was also present in Vienna, with Mario Mauroner Contemporary Art, in Die Nacht ist in den Tagverliebt. On occasion of ArtFiera in Verona, he again presented the installation Megalopoli consumistica (Consumerist megalopolis) made in 1972. “…an object where the chasm of Dürrenmatt, the bottomless abyss, is perpetually and unremittingly open, into which an infinity of micro-objects, large and small boxes... tumble down in perfect order, as if in a Milky Way in perfect alignment, cadenced without beginning or end ...” (Corrado Maltese, 1984)
In 2012 the artist took part in the exhibition Programmed and Kinetic Art, from Munari to Biasi, Colombo and... at Galleria d’Arte Moderna, Rome, where one of his Ludoscopio pieces, 1979, was permanently installed. In the same year, he had two solo shows in Padua at MAAB Studio d’Arte, and in Milan, titled Luce vera, spazio simulato (True light, simulated space) curated by Marco Meneguzzo who wrote that “… Scirpa’s interest for light is derived from a spiritual impetus, and from the quest for infinity in the deepest sphere of the human condition…” Later that year he exhibited at MACRO in Roma, in the exhibition Neon - luminous substance in art, curated by David Rosenberg and Bartolomeo Pietromarchi, and in the show Objekte und Plastiken curated by Hsiaosung Kok at Museum Ritter in Waldenbuch.
In 2013 Scirpa took part in the exhibition Rosa Piero, Rosa Tiepolo, Rosa Spalletti, Rosa…, curated by Marco Meneguzzo at Studio La città in Verona, and at the Kinetica Art Fair (MAAB, Studio d’Arte, Padova) in London, the Art International Fair in Brussels, Art International in Istanbul, and the Wien Art Fair (Mario Mauroner Contemporary Art, Salzburg, Vienna) in Vienna. From 2013 his 1985 paintings Equilaterale - Componibile modulare cromopercettivo a geometrie variabili became part of the Farnesina Collection, Contemporary Art Collection, at the Italian Foreign Ministry.
He took part in an exhibition at Fondazione Rocco Guglielmo in Catanzaro, with an installation featuring three large Ludoscopi, “…visual vertigo, and at the same time sumptuously deviant motifs…” (Flaminio Gualdoni, 2003), at the exhibition Artisti nello spazio da Lucio Fontana ad oggi, una storia dell’arte ambientale italiana (Artists in space from Lucio Fontana until today, a history of Italian environmental art), curated by Marco Meneguzzo; and at the exhibition Perception and illusion - Italian programmed and kinetic art, curated by Giovanni Granzotto and Micol Di Veroli, at the MACBA Museum in Buenos Aires, later presented at La Plata Museum. He was also present at the Ritter Museum in Waldenbuch, at The art of light and movement, and in 2014 his work was shown in Bologna, at Arte Fiera, (MAAB, Padua, and Galleria Ravizza, Milan) and in Milan, Brera Fine Arts Academy, San Carpoforo, Light art in Italy, 6.
He competed two new works, La porta stretta (The narrow door), for which he had already created a maquette in 1999, one with a gold background, the other on a Tabellone consumistico (Consumerist panel), both featuring the insertion of a light installation. He also made two sculptures in white Carrara marble and white-enamelled wood, evoking the Greek Theatre of Syracuse, with rigorous geometry and an innovative approach. In both, the concentric rings of seating are doubled and become circular, looking outwards as well as inwards.
In 2015 he took part in the exhibition Moderna Magna Graecia curated by Francesco Tedeschi at FerrarinArte, Legnago. The National Institute of Ancient Drama, INDA, in Syracuse, commissioned the new poster for their classical performances. He was also present at Missoni - Art - Colour at the MAGA gallery in Gallarate.
In 2016 Scirpa was invited to take part in the touring exhibition The moving eye staged at Muo Musej in Zagreb, and at cultural institutes and centres in São Paulo, Brasilia and Panama. He was also invited to participate in an exhibition in Syracuse, titled Bicycle Wheels – Homage to Duchamp on the theme of Dada and ready-made, curated by Claudio Cavallaro and Salvatore Mauro. On occasion of the 25th Festival of Music in Milan, dedicated to Gérard Grisey, Singing light, images of his works incorporating light sources were used as illustrations for the programme providing information on the musicians, and also for the advert broadcast on SKY Classica. The Museo del Novecento in Milan installed, as a permanent exhibit, a Ludoscopio – Pozzo, 1979, already part of its collection. He took part in the exhibition Interrogare lo spazio (Questioning space) curated by Luigi Meneghelli at FerrarinArte in Legnago (near Verona). He had solo shows at Studio Arena in Verona, La luce nel pozzo, curated by Marco Meneguzzo who wrote, describing the well created using mirrors and neon, that Scirpa “… enacts fiction in its purest state,” while we “... enjoy being deceived, instead of being disturbed by it…”; at Rosso Vermiglio in Padua, in the show Labirinti di luce (Labyrinths of light) curated by Vittoria Coen, who considered the Ludoscopio “… an invitation for reflection… a way of letting go in order to think, an invitation to freedom of spirit,” and at ArteAGallery, Milan, in a show titled L’infinito possibile (A possible infinity) curated by Francesco Tedeschi who wrote, “… The fundamental elements of his works, in their different forms, are light and space.. light as a medium of colour and shape is essential to his art... ; a light that gives solid form to geometry, generating shapes capable of attracting us and leading us... into a space without dimensions.”
In 2017, RossoVermiglioArte, Padua, presented a solo show of his works at ArteFiera in Bologna and he had another solo show at Fabbriche Chiaramontane, Agrigento, curated by Marco Meneguzzo, The form of light, the light of form :”…the form of light, the mechanical act of bending the glass tube filled with neon to create the wished-for form, transcends this physicality and becomes an immaterial substance, it becomes the light of form: the universal “brightness” of the geometrical forms joins with the luminosity that they emanate..”. He took part in an exhibition at MACA Museo Arte contemporanea, Acri, “Arte interattiva” curated by Monica Bonollo.

His work is now moving towards a textured pictorial style, in wich structure and moving suggest a route towards depht or visual labyrinths. At a time such as the present, in wich various languages exist contemporaneously and in wich artist can redevelop previous experience, he is re-examing the characteristics of the earliest anti-consumerist statements and the experimental use of electronics. In his perspective structures of space and light, he suggests many potential areas of expression.
His artistic concepts are highly topical today, to the point that young artists both in Italy and abroad are creating works showing evident influence from his Ludoscopes. For this reason, Scirpa can be considered as a highly original pioneer in the area of artistic research on simulated infinite space, and its relationship with light.

His works are present in many museums and collections including Museo del Novecento (Milan), Civiche Raccolte Stampe Achille Bertarelli (Castello Sforzesco, Milan), Biblioteca dell’Accademia di Belle Arti di Brera (Milan), MAPP Museo d’Arte Paolo Pini (Milan), MAGA Museo Arte Gallarate (Milan), VAF-Stiftung (MART Trento/Rovereto), La Galleria Nazionale and Farnesina (Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Rome), Museum Ritter (Waldenbuch), Museo Civico d'Arte Contemporanea (Gibellina), Museum (Bagheria), Fabbriche Chiaramontane (Agrigento), and Musée des Beaux Arts (Caen).


He has made works for public spaces and churches; in 1965, a large mosaic was created at Centro Internazionale del Movimento dei Focolari in Rocca di Papa (near Rome), another at the Auditorium of the Centro Internazionale, Loppiano (near Florence) and, in 2007, some paintings and stained glass were installed in the Church of the D. P. in Cernusco sul Naviglio (Milan), where his Ludoscopio pieces have also been installed above the altar and in the Baptistry.


Scirpa´s works have been included in scenographies and shows of various kinds, both televised and theatrical: among other things, in 2015, the INDA National Institute of Ancient Drama of Syracuse entrusts him with the realization of the Manifesto of the 51st Cycle of Classical Shows and, in 2016, the Milano Musica Festival chooses its Ludoscopes to interpret the Music of the composer Gérard Grisey.

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At work on a lithographic press, Salzburg, 1965